CANCER – Attitudes Now Can help prevent it Eat Healthily Regular Activity

Being overweight or obese is an increasing cause of cancer in the UK. Cancer Research UK found more than a third of all cancer cases were avoidable. Cancer Research UK also found that excess weight as a cause of cancer; has increased from 5.5% in 2011 to 6.3% (present  figure). Other preventable causes of cancer include drinking alcohol and eating too little fibre. This article focuses mainly on how to reduce obesity by eating a healthy diet which can assist in decreasing your cancer risk.

Obesity is now linked to up to twelve different forms of cancer – liver, prostate (advanced), ovary, mouth and throat, stomach, bowel, breast (post-menopause), kidney, gallbladder, pancreas, oesophagus and womb. The World Cancer Research Fund has stated that consuming a healthy diet, being active and maintaining a healthy weight are – after not smoking – the most important ways that you can decrease your cancer risk.

Cancer Research UK recommends that in order to keep a healthy weight, eat mainly –

Vegetables, fruits, wholegrains, protein foods such as pulses, fish and fresh chicken

Cancer Research UK recommends cutting down on the following –

Red and processed meats, high calorie foods and sugary drinks

Increase fruit and vegetables in diet

Fruit and vegetables are an excellent fibre source and low in calories. This can help you maintain a healthy weight. Cancer Research UK has stated that the increased consumption of fruit and vegetables can decrease the risk of throat, mouth and lung cancers.

Tips to increase your fruit and vegetable daily intake:

Make a habit of adding fruit to your cereal, porridge or yoghurt

Stock your freezer with frozen vegetables which can be stir-fried or steamed

Top a baked potato with beans, tuna and sweetcorn or broccoli and low fat cheese

Use fruit as a dessert i.e. fresh fruit salad, banana with low fat frozen yoghurt etc.

Have vegetable omelettes i.e. add mushrooms, tomatoes, peppers, onions to an omelette

Pre cut vegetables can be used for snacks, in lunches or as side dishes i.e. green, yellow, red peppers, carrot/celery sticks, sliced cucumber

Aim to eat five portions of fruit and vegetables per day. Eat one to two portions of fruit and/or vegetables with each meal. Make fruit or vegetables first choice as a snack.

Portion of fruit/vegetable examples:

One portion is 80g or any of the following:


One banana, orange, apple, pear or a similar sized fruit

Half a grapefruit/avocado

Two plums/satsumas or similar sized fruit

Two handfuls of blueberries or raspberries

A handful of grapes


Three heaped tablespoons of vegetables including raw, frozen, cooked or tinned vegetables

One cereal bowl of watercress, lettuce or spinach

Tips on increasing wholegrain foods in diet:

Choose brown, wholegrain bread instead of white bread

Use brown rice instead of white rice

Use whole wheat pasta instead of white pasta

Eat wholegrain breakfast cereals such as Weetabix, porridge, bran flakes etc.

Add barley to stews and soups

Tips on eating less processed and red meats:

Try to have vegetarian only meals one or two days per week

Decrease portion sizes of red and processed meats and increase vegetable portion size

Swap red meats and processed meats for fresh fish and chicken

Use lentils, beans and chickpeas instead of meat when cooking; these pulses are a good source of fibre and protein

Tips on decreasing daily salt intake:

Eat more fresh fruit and vegetables; drain and rinse canned vegetables

Check food labels before buying and purchase less salty options

Use spices, herbs, garlic and citrus juices in place of salt for adding flavour to your food

Limit your intake of salt to less than six grams per day (2.4g sodium)

Tips to reduce high calorie foods and drinks:

Eating more wholegrain foods, vegetables and pulses during meals helps fill you up more on fewer calories

Decrease or avoid sugary drinks; drink water instead

Decrease fast foods and takeaway meals; cook more at home

Prepare fruit and vegetables for snacks and avoid high calorie snacks – chocolate, crisps, biscuits etc.

The Eat Well Guide shows the balance of foods that should be eaten on a daily basis to maintain a healthy weight.


Obesity and being overweight is a huge health risk at present. The UK government needs to build on their successes in smoking prevention to decrease the numbers of obesity and overweight related cancers. Healthy eating guidelines, healthy eating promotion and nutrition education are vital tools in the prevention and reduction of obesity. The food industry also has a role to play in tackling obesity i.e. reducing over sized food portions and adapting recipes to decrease sugar, salt and nutrient dense foods. This can make it easier for people to make healthier choices and assist with preventing and reducing obesity.


Eat Right. 20 Ways to Enjoy More Fruit and Vegetables. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; 2014.

Fruit and vegetables – how to get five-a-day. Food Fact Sheet. The Association of UK Dietitians; 2017.

The Eatwell Guide. British Nutrition Foundation; 2016.

Therrien Alex. Rise in cancers ’caused by weight’ . BBC News Website; 2018.

Boseley Sarah. Obesity now linked to 12 different cancers. Guardian Website; 2018.

Cancer Research UK. How to enjoy a healthy diet. Cancer Research UK Website; 2016.



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