Author Archives for Catriona's Nutrition Blog

Cheese – nutritional benefits versus weight gain

Cheese is a good source of both calcium and protein. However cheese can be high in sodium and saturated fats. Whether cheese is a healthy option depends on both the individual and the amount and type of cheese eaten.

There are many types of cheese. Cheese can range from mild to mature in flavour and low to high in fat composition. Cheeses that are low in both fat and sodium can be a healthy addition to most diets. Cheese can be made from cows, sheep, goats and other animals milk. Cheese is used on popular dishes such as pizzas, burgers, salads, sandwiches and Mexican dishes. Cheese can be eaten alone as a snack or appetiser. Cheese can be added to many dishes such as soups, pastas, sauces.

Nutritional content of cheese:

Cheese is a good source of calcium. Calcium is essential for healthy teeth and bones, blood clotting, wound healing and keeping normal blood pressure. Cheese can be high in sodium, calories and saturated fat. The breakdown of nutrients in cheese can vary a lot, depending on the type of cheese.

Health benefits of cheese:

The protein, calcium, magnesium, zinc and vitamins A, D and K content in cheese contributes to healthy bone development in children and young adults and to the prevention of osteoporosis.

Cheese is a good source of calcium. Calcium has an important function in tooth formation. It has been concluded from at least one study that eating cheese can increase the pH level in dental plaque which protects against dental cavities.

Calcium can assist in reducing blood pressure. Low fat and low sodium cheeses are recommended. Examples include parmesan, ricotta cheese, cottage cheese, feta, goats cheese and low fat cream cheese.

It was concluded by researchers in 2014 that dairy products could be a good source of the antioxidant glutathione. Glutathione is vital for brain health and the prevention of age related neurodegeneration.

Protein is essential for the building and repair of cells. One ounce of cheddar cheese can provide 7g of protein. The amount of protein recommended for an individual depends on their size, age and activity level.

Negative aspects of cheese consumption:

One ounce of cheddar cheese can contain approximately 120 calories and 6g saturated fat. A high intake of saturated fat can raise the risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular issues. Sodium can be especially high in processed cheeses and cheese flavoured products. There have been concerns raised about the presence of estrogen and other steroid hormones in dairy products. This could lead to a disruption of the endocrine system and could increase the risk of some types of cancer.

Individuals with lactose intolerance lack the enzyme required to break down and digest the sugar found in milk. The consumption of milk and dairy products can result in diarrhoea, bloating and flatulence.

Individuals with a milk allergy should avoid cheese. A sensitivity to casein (milk protein) can cause inflammation throughout the body. This can produce symptoms such as acne, sinus congestion, skin rashes and migraines.

Phosphorus can be present in high quantities in some cheeses. This may cause harm in individuals with a kidney disorder. If the kidneys are unable to remove excess phosphorus from the blood, this can be fatal.

Overall tips when choosing and consuming cheese:

Low fat and reduced fat cheeses are available. These can be good choices if a recipe calls for a large quantity of cheese.

It is important to remember that the sodium content of cheese varies. Processed cheeses generally contain high levels of sodium. Swiss cheese and Gruyere have lower levels of sodium.

To reduce calorie consumption, use strong flavoured cheeses i.e. Parmesan or blue cheese. You do not have to use as much, for example, in soups, salads, pastas, vegetable dishes.

My next blog topic – Nutrition and Resilience!

 

 

 

 

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Functional Foods – What are functional foods and how do they benefit us?

Nutrition has moved on from the traditional concept of avoiding nutrient deficiencies to the concept of optimal nutrition. Nutrition research has moved to identifying components in foods which can optimise physical and mental well being and decrease the risk of disease. Functional foods are foods and drinks that are enriched with particular nutrients/substances that can positively influence health beyond their basic nutritional value.

Functional foods include foods generated around a particular functional ingredient i.e. stanols/sterols enriched low fat spread, foods fortified with a nutrient that would not usually be present i.e. folic acid fortified bread/breakfast cereals.

What is NOT a functional food: Functional foods and medicines are different from a legislative perspective. Claims about the ability to treat or prevent disease are not allowed on foods but are permitted on medicines.

Superfoods: there is no specific definition of a superfood and no method of testing whether a food is super or not. The term superfoods is sometimes used by journalists to describe a food that is rich in a particular nutrient or bioactive substance.

Examples of functional foods and their benefits :

Yoghurts/ yoghurt drinks: These contain probiotics. Probiotics are live microorganisms (mainly bacteria). Many probiotic bacterial strains are the result of fermentation.  Probiotics can also be added to foods to improve intestinal microbial balance i.e. lactobacillus and bifidobacteria. Prebiotics are a non digestible component that have beneficial effects by stimulating the growth of bacteria in the colon. Examples of prebiotics include oligofructose and inulin.  Foods containing both probiotics and prebiotics assist in optimal intestinal function and intestinal microbial balance.

Margarines: Many margarines are fortified with plant sterols and stability esters. These margarines assist with decreased LDL cholesterol and reduced risk of coronary heart disease.

Omega 3 fatty acids enriched eggs: The omega 3 fatty acids assist in the control of hypertension and lipids metabolism.

Functional foods may provide health benefits but should not be seen as an alternative to a balanced diet and healthy lifestyle. The research opportunities to explore the relationship between a food component and an improved state of health or reduction of disease, present a great challenge to scientific researchers both now and in the future. Communicating the health benefits to consumers is very important so that they have the knowledge to make informed choices about the foods they consume.

My next blog topic is – cheese – nutritional benefits versus weight gain.

 

 

 

 

 

Genetically Modified Foods

Genetically Modified Foods is a topic close to my heart. I completed my Masters thesis on consumers attitudes towards GM foods – The effect of social class and area on the attitudes of Irish consumers towards Genetically Modified Foods. It was concluded that the majority of consumers stated that their concerns about GM foods would stop them from buying GM foods for both Dublin and Limerick. This was also the case for all of Dublin and all of Limerick. Social class did have an effect on Irish consumers mean level of knowledge about GM foods, their concerns about chemical sprays and on their moral views regarding GM foods. Area of residence did not have an effect on Irish consumers attitudes towards GM foods.

Genetically Modified Foods are foods where the DNA has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally. The technology can be called ‘modern biotechnology’, ‘recombinant DNA technology’, ‘genetic engineering’ or ‘genetic technology’. This results in allowing desirable traits i.e. herbicide resistance, pest protection and improved nutritional qualities. GM foods include foods that have an added or deleted gene sequence, animal products produced from animals that were fed GM feed and products produced by GM organisms.

How safety assessment of GM food is conducted: this focuses on 1. direct health effects 2. allergenicity 3. specific components thought to have toxic/ nutritional properties 4. stability of inserted gene 5.  nutritional effects associated with genetic modification 6. unintended effects which could result from insertion of gene.

The benefits of GM foods: These include increased yield, increased resistance to disease, less likely to be damaged by insects, improved nutritional value, increased shelf life, increased climatic survival, increased crop yields, decreased farm costs and increased farm profits.

Criticism of GM foods: These include environmental hazards – unintended harm to other organisms, decreased effectiveness of pesticides. Human health risks – allergenicity, the introduction of genes may create more allergies, unknown effects on human health. Economic concerns – a costly and lengthy process.

Public concern of GM foods: Many consumers accept more readily biotechnology as benefiting their health i.e. medicines with improved treatment potential/increased safety. European consumers confidence in food safety decreased with BSE and other public food safety scares. Consumers questioned the validity of risk assessments – focusing particularly on the long term effects of GM foods.

Future of GM foods: GM advocates are confident that the next generation of GM foods will be even more promising. The current techniques used to introduce genes into plant cells result in random insertion into genome. New techniques have been devised which allow precise insertion of genes into locations in the genome. This avoids the potential unknown effects of disrupting plants normal genome with random integrations. The political pressure from GM critics will remain a powerful source.

My next blog topic will be about functional foods and their benefits 🍇🍅

 

Nutrition, Genes and Health!

Hi again. Here is my blog post on nutrition, genes and health!

In the past nutrition research focused on impairment of health and nutrient deficiencies. Nutrigenomics has created the opportunity to deepen the understanding of how nutrients deepen gene expression, protein biosynthesis and metabolism. Nutrigenomics is the study of the genome influence on nutrition. It applies genomics technologies in food technology and nutritional sciences. Nutrigenetics is how an individual is genetically programmed to respond in a certain way to a nutrient. It deals with our genetic variation and how this manages our response to certain nutrition.

Nutrition science needs to understand the mechanism of nutrient dependent interactions at genetic molecular protein production and metabolic profile levels. The main aim of nutrigenetics is to clarify the impact of the variability of genes on the interactions between nutrients and diseases. Nutrigenomics studies the genome broad impact on nutrition.

Examples of nutrigenomics: phenylketonuria patients need to avoid phenylalanine rich food. Deficiency of aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme which metabolizes ethanol.  This results in annoying manifestation of individuals after consuming alcohol – this is seen in many Asian populations.

Examples of nutrigenetics:

MTHFR is involved in the metabolism of folic acid and maintaining normal blood level of homocysteine. A particular MTHFR gene SNP is linked with elevated homocysteine levels in the blood especially if there is a deficiency of folic acid in the diet. This is associated with cardiovascular diseases and raised predisposition of colon cancers (especially if there is a inadequate amount of folic acid in the diet when compared to recommended daily requirement.

Ethics and social issues:

For nutrigenomic developments it is important how the message is communicated and by whom. Consumers fear the consequences of characterisation of genome and identification of mutations of highly penetrant genes i.e. those responsible for forms of cancer. The consequence of this could impact an individual’s ability to gain employment, insurance or finance. The benefit in relation to the prevention of disease – knowledge of a person’s genetic profile could be used to create specific risk reducing actions involving diet which could reduce risk of disease and improve quality of life.

I will discuss genetic modified foods next week, an interesting and controversial topic!

 

 

 

 

The Vegan Diet – introductory healthy eating and nutritional tips for following the Vegan Diet

Hi again, this is later than promised. I’m catching up after a busy weekend.

The vegan diet contains only plant based foods and is completely free of meat, poultry, fish and any animal products i.e. eggs and dairy. People are on a vegan diet for numerous reasons i.e. weight management, environmental concerns, family influences.

Proper planning is essential when on a vegan diet. Food preparation and food choice are important as all protein, vitamins and minerals come from non animal sources. Food can be prepared at home. There are some ready made vegan meals available in large supermarkets and specialist stores. Vegan options are also available in restaurants.

Things to consider when following a vegan diet include considering alternative sources for the below nutrients:

Vitamin B12 – vegans should include fortified vitamin B12 foods such as soya milk, desserts and yoghurts, breakfast cereals and nutritional yeast (always remember to check the food label before buying).

Iron – red meat is the most easily absorbed iron source. Plant foods contain only nonheme iron. Vitamin C enhances the absorption of iron. Alternative plant sources include beans/lentils, dark leafy green vegetables, nuts, fortified breakfast cereals.

Calcium – to maintain high calcium levels, include plenty of the following tofu, calcium fortified foods i.e. yoghurts, soya milk, fruit juice, nuts, brown/white bread.

Vitamin D – Spending time in the sun boosts Vitamin D levels. Foods that contain fortified Vitamin D include fortified breakfast cereals, fortified yoghurts and soya milks.

Omega-3 fatty acids – good sources of omega-3 fatty acids include canola oil, tofu, flaxseeds/flaxseed oil, walnuts/walnut oil, soybeans/soybean oil.

Zinc – good sources of zinc include soybeans and other beans, wholegrains, nuts, seeds, some fortified cereals.

Healthy Benefits of the Vegan Diet –

A well planned and nutritional vegan diet can have a very positive impact on health. These include:

Zero animal fats: Animal fats have been linked to conditions including rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and various cancers. Plant based oils and fats such as olive oil provide the necessary fatty acids without raising low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

Reduced cancer risk: Meat eaters are at an increased risk of prostrate and colorectal cancers. The Vegan diet contains higher volumes of fruits, vegetables, fibre and legumes which are believed to protect against various cancers.

Heart health: People on a vegan diet take in fewer calories than those on a standard Western diet. This can result in a lower Body Mass Index and a decreased obesity risk. Reduced levels of harmful cholesterol can have a decreased risk of mortality from ischemic heart disease than meat eaters.

Lower mortality rate: Eating red and processed meats are linked to increased risk of premature deaths. This suggests that not eating meat redcues the overall risk of premature deaths.

Protection against chronic disease: Plant based diets can counteract an individual’s genetic likelihood of developing chronic diseases i.e. type 2 diabetes.  Researchers maintain that antioxidants in plant foods can fight free radical cells that cause inflammation and cell damage. Other plant compounds assist in controlling different genes linked to tumour growth, cardiovascular disease and arterial plaque.

Please see below link from Brenda Davis, registered dietician and nutritionist about  The Vegan Plate.

http://www.brendadavisrd.com/my-vegan-plate/#.WmpK1OdpKr0.wordpress

Tomorrow I will blog about nutrition and genetics and the relationship between Nutrition, Genes and Health!

Bananas – Nutritional Information and Healthy Facts

A medium sized banana contains around 105 calories. The average banana offers a portable snack that can be eaten on the go. This is ideal for athletes. Bananas are very versatile. They can used in smoothies, added to wholemeal toast and added also to yoghurts. Bananas can even be used in muffins.

Bananas are a rich source of carbohydrates. The carbohydrate content of bananas changes a lot during ripening. The main carbohydrate component of unripe bananas is starch. On a dry weight basis, green bananas contain up to 70 to 80 percent starch. The starch in bananas is converted into sugars during ripening. The most common types of sugar found in ripening bananas include sucrose, fructose and glucose.

A large proportion of starch found in unripe bananas is resistant starch. This resistant starch is resistant to digestion and is therefore a type of fibre. Bananas are also a good source of pectin which is another type of fibre. Some of the pectin in bananas is water soluble. Both pectin and resistant starch moderate the blood sugar rise after a meal. Bananas therefore have a low glycaemic index. Glycaemic index is a measure of the impact of food on our blood sugar.

Bananas are a very good source of vitamin B6. Bananas are also a good source of manganese, vitamin C, potassium, biotin and copper.  One medium sized banana can provide up to one third of the recommended daily intake of vitamin B6. Potassium is an essential mineral for the maintenance of normal blood pressure and heart function. The inclusion of bananas in your diet protect against atherosclerosis and help in the prevention of high blood pressure. Eating two bananas per day has been proven to lower blood pressure by ten percent.

Bananas contains small amounts of sterols i.e. sitosterol, campesterol, stigmastoral. These sterols block the absorption of dietary cholesterol and therefore help in keeping our blood cholesterol levels in check.

Bananas can help to relieve gastrointestinal illnesses. Bananas are part of the BRAT diet (Bananas, Rice Applesauce and Dry Toast). These are foods that assist in relieving diarrhoea and upset stomach. Bananas are easy to digest and non irritating to the gastrointestinal tract.

Bananas should be firm but not too hard. Bananas should have their stems and tips intact. Bananas are actually very fragile. Bananas should be left to ripening at room temperature. Bananas should not be subjected to overly cold or hot temperatures. You should not place unripe bananas in the fridge because this will interrupt the ripening process. Bananas can be frozen for approximately two months. Bananas can be pureed before freezing or placed in a plastic wrap once the peel has been removed.

Tomorrow I will blog about the health benefits of a vegan diet.